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The Puritans, Democracy and Freedom

For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill.

—John Winthrop, “A Model of Christian Charity” (1630)

Democracy, I do not conceive that ever God did ordain as a fit govern-ment either for church or commonwealth.

—John Cotton, Letter to Lord Say and Seal (1636)

The Puritans

In times of cultural upheaval and demise there are often two sorts of extremists. Those who abandon the established order as a thing beyond redemption and those who remain within the system, believing they can reform it. New England was settled by both kinds, by Separatists and by Puritans. Last week we looked at the Separatists, those intrepid settlers we call the Pilgrim Fathers. Today we will consider the Puritans.

Like the Pilgrims, the Puritans were English Calvinists. They accepted without question the doctrines of human depravity and God’s sovereignty in salvation and providence. They also thought in terms of covenants. First, the covenant of grace which revealed and structured God’s gracious friendship with His people. And then second, the covenants of social structures in family, church, and commonwealth. They believed that all of these covenant relationships were defined and ultimately enforced by God Himself. For the Puritans, the only alternatives to covenant life were tyranny and anarchy.

The English and American Puritans generally emphasized two ways of covenant thinking that many of their Calvinistic cousins didn’t. First, the Puritans made freer use of biblical law in their pursuit of reform, including the case laws that supplemented and applied the Decalogue. Second, the Puritans believed that the gospel would have a much greater impact on the world in the future. They even spoke of the “Latter-Day Glory” of Christ’s kingdom, a glory brought about by the Holy Spirit and the preaching of the gospel.

Moved by this theology, the Puritans were ready to remain within the established order of the English church and push for reform in terms of Scripture while the Separatists were already charting a course for the American wilderness. But within ten years, the situation in England made the Puritans rethink their position. Charles II ascended the throne, espoused the doctrine of the divine right of kings, married a Roman Catholic wife, and appointed the Arminian William Laud bishop of London. In their minds at least, there was no longer hope for any peaceable reform.

A City on a Hill

In 1630 four ships set sail for Massachusetts. Their passengers were the first Puritan settlers to come to New England. Among them was John Winthrop (1588-1649), the future governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Winthrop wrestled with their vision and mission. They were Puritans. They had questioned the wisdom of the Separatists who had abandoned England for the New World. Now they found themselves following in their wake. How could they justify leaving?

Aboard the Arbella, Winthrop wrote up his meditations and conclusions on the whole matter. He called it, “A Model of Christian Charity.” Interestingly, there is nothing in it about democracy and equality and very little about liberty. But there is a great deal about inequality, submission, and love.

And so Winthrop begins:

God Almighty in his most holy and wise providence, hath so disposed of the condition of mankind, as in all times some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in submission.

Winthrop begins with the fundamental inequalities that mark the human condition. These, he says, come from the hand of God and present us with opportunities to learn humility, service, and love. God makes men unequal so that “every man might have need of others, and from hence they might be all knit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection.” Inequality is for the glory of our Creator and our common good.

Given these inequalities, the believer must imitate his Creator in showing both justice and mercy. The great commandment to love our neighbor, even to love our enemies, unites these virtues. Jesus’ command to love our brothers in the Lord requires even more of us. Winthrop writes about giving freely, lending generously, and even forgiving debts wholly. In a community, such as the one the Puritans proposed to build, these virtues had to come to the fore. Without this sort of practical love, the whole experiment would fail; the colony would shipwreck. But if they would continue “together in all meekness, gentleness, patience and liberality,” delighting in each other, making each other’s conditions their own, rejoicing together, mourning together, laboring and suffering together, as members of the same body, the Lord would delight to dwell among them and bless them.

We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when he shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, “the Lord make it likely that of New England.” For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill.

And there it is. A City on a Hill. The Puritans would continue their work of reform at a distance. Through faith they would work out their covenant obligations to one another in true, practical love. God would bless their efforts, and the Christian world would be amazed at what God had done in the wilderness of New England. Of course, should they fail, the whole world would mock their efforts and they would bring shame upon the name of Christ.

The Puritans and Democracy

The Puritan churches adopted congregational government from their neighbors across the Bay at Plymouth. They did not, however, extend the civil franchise to all church members. That’s because the Puritans, (just like the Pilgrims) didn’t believe in democracy. They didn’t believe that political authority arises out of the people, but that it descends covenantally from God. Edmund S. Morgan in his study of Winthrop writes:

Winthrop did believe that the people, or a properly qualified portion of them, were entitled to determine the form of government to be established over them and to select the persons who should run that government. These two operations performed, their role was played out until, under the form of government they had chosen, it was time to elect new rulers. If a ruler failed in his duty to enforce the laws of God, the people would be obliged to turn him out without waiting for election time. But so long as he did his duty, his authority was absolute, and, regardless of any errors of judgment he might make, the people were obliged to submit. Indeed, anything less than submission would be rebellion against the authority of God (94).

Rulers were bound by the law of God, and to this absolute standard the people could hold their rulers accountable. Winthrop agreed to broadening the franchise in the Bay Colony, not as a step toward democracy, but as a pragmatic way of strengthening a republican form of government the Puritans had adopted: “. . . for Winthrop was enough of a politician to know that, regardless of any divine authority a ruler might claim, people would submit to him more readily if they had a voice in choosing him, especially a Puritan people well educated by their ministers in the principle of government based on covenant” (95). In other words, those well educated in the word of God could be trusted to recognize the gifts required for governing others, but they should not all try their hand at governing. This is a far cry from, say, Greek democracy.

Equality and Mathematics

Equality is a mathematical concept. Two plus two equals four because two and two are identical with four. Two quantities are equal if they are interchangeable. But no two humans are interchangeable. No two humans are in that sense equal. God’s law holds all men equally accountable, but it makes no effort to equalize all men’s social, economic, or political conditions.

Conclusion

When Paul addresses the structure of the Church, he uses the figure of the human body (1 Cor. 12). All believers are members of the same body and share in its weal and woe, but each member differs from the others as much as a hand differs from a foot, or an eye from an ear. Paul recognizes the Spirit-given gifts of teaching, governing, and serving. Nowhere in his argument does he suggest that all believers are equal, either in function or dignity. The beauty and glory of the body comes precisely from the marvelous inequality and diversity of the members. But Paul stops in the middle of his discussion of Spiritual gifts to recommend and mandate love, agape, as the greatest and most necessary of Christian virtues. This is true freedom as Winthrop understood it. It was also their foundation for building a City on a Hill.

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NYC Adds Nearly 4,000 People Who Never Tested Positive To Coronavirus Death Tolls

New York City added nearly 4,000 people who never tested positive for the coronavirus to its death toll Tuesday, bringing coronavirus-related deaths in the city to around 10,000 people.

The city decided to add 3,700 people to its death tolls, who they “presumed” to have died from the virus, according to a report from The New York Times. The additions increased the death toll in the U.S. by 17%, according to the Times report, and included people who were suffering from symptoms of the virus, such as intense coughing and a fever.

The report stated that Democratic New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio decided over the weekend to change the way the city is counting deaths.

“In the heat of battle, our primary focus has been on saving lives,” de Blasio press secretary Freddi Goldstein told the Times.“As soon as the issue was raised, the mayor immediately moved to release the data.”

The post New York City added nearly 4,000 people who never tested positive for the coronavirus to its death toll appeared first on Daily Caller

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The Ultimate Energizer Review – Does It Really Work?

energy

If you’re looking for a review of the ultimate energizer guide then you have come to the right spot because in this exclusive article we’re going to blow the lid off the ultimate energizer once and for all and reveal weather it is the real deal or not.

This brings us to the review of the ultimate energizer guide. This is a program that provides users with classified information on how to build a free energy generator. But can the program really make you achieve this?

does it work? will it be worth your investment, time and energy? all these questions and more are what this review on the ultimate energizer program seeks to help you find answers to.

The ultimate energizer review – is it worth it?

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About The Ultimate Energizer guide

The ultimate energizer is your ultimate guide to building your own alternative and portable energy source to power up any of your household appliances including refrigerators and aircon units. It is a very affordable way to having an emergency generator that can help you save more than 50% from your electricity bills without spending too much on other alternative energy source like solar panels or wind turbines which is costly and will also need a lot of space.

The ultimate energizer causes you to be calm about the electricity bill. This well ordered guide shows you how to manufacture this claim “home energy gadget” today impeccably. This will dispose of your energy charge ensured.

It is lost to the earth which means we need to really take care of it in order to reduce the cost of energy bills which introduces the ultimate energizer guide.

About The Ultimate Energizer Creator

The creator of the complete the ultimate energizer guide is steven perkins. He found the journal of the founder of this technology in his home when his father shifted near quebec city in canada.

In this post, we will review the ultimate energizer whose creator claimed to offer a way through which you can generate non-stop current. According to the author, you can drop down your electricity bills by 80%.

Of course the ultimate energizer owners provide resources. But the truth is that you are a master creator. All of them have that talent in us. The only difference is the extent to which it is hidden in each of us.

Features of The Ultimate Energizer

The features of the ultimate energizer guide are as follows:-. This program guide will help you to design a the ultimate energizer generator which will follow the rules of linear induction motor which is built around a track that is orbicular to maintain the smooth motion of rotors that are transportable.

You can find here, a extensive review which highlights all the important features and performance criteria of the ultimate energizer. Use of the the ultimate energizer is very easy since all of the functions can be accessed in a short time; you have complete control over it. 100% money back guarantee shows that the ultimate energizer really works. The ultimate energizer gives full customer support for 7/24/365, also, features, credibility and the ultimate energizer’s ease of use are favorably satisfied by the buyers.

Use it on any electrical appliances from small clocks to big plasma tv screens, refrigerators, and air conditioners. Power the cabins while hiking to the mountains or camping. Other essential features of this complete the ultimate energizer are that it is easy to assemble and does not require a technical background to master engineering.

Pros and Cons of The Ultimate Energizer

I’ve created this  honest ultimate energizer review to help you make a well-informed decision. I’ve tested it myself and now i’m going to share with you all the key aspects you may be interested in: how does it work? is it really so powerful and effective? what are its pros and cons?.

It is non-polluting. It remains popular the ultimate energizer guide pros & cons because it is both a renewable and clean source of energy. Harnessing solar energy is more than a fine idea it’s currently a reality in thousands of homes in a lot of nations around the world.

>> Click here to get access to the ultimate energizer guide now

On the review of the ultimate energizer guide, we will be looking into what exactly the program is all about, the details of the energy generator program, the benefits, pros & cons and our conclusion on the program.

Does The Ultimate Energizer really work?

The device is usable during emergencies. It works without fuels and therefore there are no expected fumes. It is weather proof. Cons of the ultimate energizer. You can only download the program from the official website.

But the ultimate energizer reviews that are available from real users online on platforms like google and youtube seem to confirm that the device does indeed work. So, as per my ultimate energizer review answer to the question is the ultimate energizer legit? is definitely yes.

The ultimate energizer guide. The ultimate energizer is said to work for your home and cut electricity by 82%, guaranteed by tomorrow. The ultimate energizer reviews. It can boost any type of electricity by as much as 5 times.

Advantages of The Ultimate Energizer Program

The program can benefit you in many ways. Below we are listing the advantages of using the ultimate energizer program for generating electricity:. This device will help you save up to 60%-70%, without investing money in solar panels which can cost you a lot of money.

There are additional the ultimate energizer guide program advantages too, including advantages at tax time, so do your homework on what you might have for being a solar power pioneer contributed back.

Why The Ultimate Energizer is Useful?

The ultimate energizer is a complete guide and blueprint. With it, you get everything you need to know to build your own free energy generator. This generator can be completed for less than $50 if you have some tools already. But i remember reading another review of the ultimate energizer, and the guy said he took days. Maybe he was crafty. Then, you assemble it and get it to work.

You will be guided step by step, that anybody who can read can build it. You do not need prior building experience or massive strength; it is that easy. Building the ultimate energizer takes under 4 hours if you are slow and definitely a lot less when you have help.

The ultimate energizer has already changed the lives of over 30,000 families who chose to power their homes using this eco-friendly device. This is definitely a good investment that is worth your time and money and if you think it isn’t after trying it out, you can request for a refund.

Is The Ultimate Energizer a Scam?

The ultimate energizer guide really show you how to power your house and save tremendously, or is this just another overhyped scam? this system was created after its owner decided he wanted to have a home power generating system in case of any crises or disasters.

The ultimate energizer pdf. It does not need any conventional electric power. The ultimate energizer scam. In this program, you can also build more generator and sell for profit. This product can also be incorporated into the automobile to power an electric motor.

All you need is an open mind and a desire to try new things to get a life in the field of freedom of energy. So, what are you waiting for? it’s time to say goodbye to major energy companies and start using the ultimate energizer guide today.

Watch this video demonstration of the ultimate energizer guide put into action

 

>> Click here to get access to the ultimate energizer guide now

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Better Off-Grid Deal Yet? Good This Weekend Only!

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The post <span style="color:#ff0000">Better Off-Grid Deal Yet? Good This Weekend Only!</span> appeared first on Off The Grid News.

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