Native American traditions in food consumption varied greatly, owing much to the diversity of habitats.
For example, the Alaskan Athabascans had very different diets than the Brazilian tribes in the Amazon rainforest. There were also a variety of lifestyles for different tribes as well. Some tribes settled into one place year round, farming the land and being very agricultural, while others were semi-nomadic, following the herds and moving with the seasons as they hunted and gathered their foods. But one constant in both tribal lifestyles was a need for meat accumulation and preservation for use in the winter months and during long hunting and trading expeditions.
In the days before supermarkets, Native Americans in these ancient societies found food for their families in four basic ways: hunting and fishing, gathering, farming, and raising domesticated animals.
So, what types of meat did the Native Americans eat? It varied, depending on the tribe. Buffalo, deer, caribou, elk and rabbit were popular. Raising domesticated animals in North America before Europeans arrived was limited primarily to turkeys, ducks and dogs. Most tribes did not eat dog meat, although there are cases of some who did. In the documented travels of famous explorers Lewis & Clark in their 1803-06 expedition, they spoke of consumption of dog meat all across the continent (although Clark abstained). When their own supply of dog meat ran low they acquired more from the Paiutes, Clatsop, Teton Sioux, Nez Perce and the Hidatsas. The Kickapoo (in present day Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Mexico) still consume puppy meat in their ceremonies and festivals to honor their chief deity.
Here are four ways Native Americans preserved meat:
Smoking it – Northwest tribes and those in the extreme north relied heavily on fish to carry them throughout the year, making use of annual salmon spawning to capture massive amounts of fish. They would then dry and preserve the fish for use throughout the winter. Ancient methods of preserving fish included drying, salting, pickling and smoking, but in the absence of large quantities of salt and other preservatives, smoking alone was sufficient.
Image source: FirstPeoplesOfCanada.com
The smoking process involves exposing salmon or other fish fillets directly to smoke from smoldering wood for anywhere from several hours to two to three days.
Smoking can be done in both open and enclosed structures. Traditional smoking structures include smoke sheds and tipis large enough to smoke entire hides, many salmon, or large quantities of game.
Enclosed structures contain a smoke source in the bottom, and raw foods to be smoked are arranged on racks or on hanging lines inside the shed or tipi.
Jerky — The term “jerky” derives from the Peruvian Quechua tribe’s word “ch’arki” meaning “dried” or “burned” meat. Jerky is a form of meat preservation in which fresh meat from large game is carefully defatted, cut into slices, sometimes pounded flat, and dried in the sun or smoked over a fire to prevent it from spoiling. Salt was not usually used in the preservation process due to its inland scarcity. Small game meat was primarily consumed immediately, but larger game was preserved and utilized as a long-term source of protein.
Pemmican – A high-energy concentrated mixture of fat and protein used as a nutritious “shelf stable” traveling food, pemmican is made from the lean meat of large game such as buffalo, moose, elk or deer. The meat is cut in thin slices and dried over a slow fire, or in the hot sun, until it is hard and brittle. The picture below is a demonstration of traditional meat-drying techniques at the annual Calgary Stampede in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Roughly five pounds of fresh meat is required to make one pound of dried meat suitable for preparing into pemmican. Once the meat is dried, it is pounded into very small powder-like pieces. The pounded meat is then mixed with fat in an approximate 1:1 ratio. In some cases, depending on availability and geography, native dried fruits such as Saskatoon berries, cranberries, blueberries, or choke cherries, were pounded into powder and then added into the meat and fat mixture.
Some preparations also included bone marrow. Cranberries and choke cherries are both indigenous to North America, and both have acids that help to naturally preserve buffalo meat. The resulting mixture was then packed into rawhide bags for storage and even shipped and stored at the major fur posts.
Wasna – This is the Lakota version of pemmican, although the meat is specifically buffalo. One modern-day Lakota told the Native American company Tanka Bar that the “best wasna comes from choke cherries beaten with a special stone, which gives them a special flavor, and made into dried patties. The patties are then mixed with bapa, or dried buffalo, and a small amount of buffalo kidney fat.” That “special stone” is found in a local river. The Lakota discourage people from using beef fat, as it would make the wasna spoil quicker. The Tanka Bar in South Dakota actually sells wasna and other Native Americans foods.
Learning and practicing these traditional techniques is a great idea for homesteaders and survivalists. While carbohydrate-rich energy food may be great to have on hand for short-term use, it’s better to both familiarize yourself with the flavors of protein-rich native foods and gain the valuable food preparation skills needed.
Have you ever made pemmican or other types of Native American foods? What advice would you add? Share it in the section below:
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NYC Adds Nearly 4,000 People Who Never Tested Positive To Coronavirus Death Tolls
New York City added nearly 4,000 people who never tested positive for the coronavirus to its death toll Tuesday, bringing coronavirus-related deaths in the city to around 10,000 people.
The city decided to add 3,700 people to its death tolls, who they “presumed” to have died from the virus, according to a report from The New York Times. The additions increased the death toll in the U.S. by 17%, according to the Times report, and included people who were suffering from symptoms of the virus, such as intense coughing and a fever.
The report stated that Democratic New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio decided over the weekend to change the way the city is counting deaths.
“In the heat of battle, our primary focus has been on saving lives,” de Blasio press secretary Freddi Goldstein told the Times.“As soon as the issue was raised, the mayor immediately moved to release the data.”
How To Make Lacto-Fermented Sauerkraut In A Mason Jar
The thing about homesteading is you get to create your own ingredient right from scratch! Cheese, yogurt, butter and now sauerkraut, a delightfully sour and crunchy ingredient you can use on your meals — or consume by itself — while on a homestead, or while facing this health crisis!
This homemade sauerkraut is a great meal because it has a long shelf life. You can either make plain sauerkraut or mix it with herbs and spices. In this tutorial let us make Lacto-fermented sauerkraut that preserves all the good probiotics in a jar, good for your guts.
So how to make sauerkraut in a mason jar?
Delicious Sauerkraut Recipe Every Homesteader Should Know
Why Make Sauerkraut?
Not only does sauerkraut spoil a long time, but it is also a meal in itself, and it is also easy to make! You don’t need to be an expert cook, all you need to do is follow these simple steps.
So let us get started. Here are the steps in making sauerkraut in a mason jar.
- 1 head of cabbage or 2 1/2 lbs cabbage
- 1 tablespoon of salt
- mason jar
- smaller jar
- rubber band
Step 1: Wash & Clean the Tools & Ingredients
Wash all the equipment and utensils you need. Wash your hands too.
You don’t want to mix your sauerkraut with bad bacteria, anything that is going to make you sick.
Next, remove the faded leaves from your cabbage. Cut off the roots and the parts that don’t seem fresh.
Step 2: Cut the Cabbage Into Quarters & Slice Into Strips
Cut your cabbage into quarters and remove the core. Then, slice it into strips.
Step 3: Place in a Bowl & Sprinkle With Salt
Put the stripped cabbage into a bowl. Sprinkle the cabbage with 1 tablespoon of salt.
TIP: Use canning salt or sea salt. Iodized salt will make it taste different and may not ferment the cabbage.
RELATED: Homemade Yogurt Recipe
Step 4: Massage the Cabbage
Massage the cabbage for five minutes or more to get the juice out.
TIP: You’ll know it’s ready when you see a bit of juice at the bottom of the bowl and will look similar to coleslaw.
Step 5: Press Cabbage Into the Mason Jar
Add the cabbage to the mason jar gradually. Press it in hard to allow the juice to come out. Do this every time you add about a handful of cabbage.
IMPORTANT: Food should be covered by the liquid to promote fermentation. Add any excess liquid from the bowl to the jar.
Step 6: Press a Smaller Jar Into the Mason Jar
You want to squeeze every ounce of that juice from the cabbage. To do this place the mason jar in a bowl and get a smaller jar.
Fill it with water or marble to make it heavy. Press it into the bigger mason jar. Allow any juices to rise to the surface.
Step 7: Cover the Jars With Cloth & Tie With Rubber Band
Leave the small jar on. To keep your jars clean from annoying insects and irritating debris, cover your jars with a clean cloth. Then, use a rubber band to tie the cloth and the jars together, putting them in place.
Step 8: Set Aside & Check Daily
Set it aside in a cool dry place, away from direct sunlight. Check the water level daily. It should always be above the cabbage.
Step 9: Taste Your Sauerkraut & Keep at Cool Temperatures
After about five days, you can taste your sauerkraut. If the taste is to your liking, tightly cover it with the lid and store in the fridge or cellar.
NOTE: If after five days it’s still not your desired taste, leave it for a few more days. This will allow the fermentation process to continue.
You can now enjoy your sauerkraut in a mason jar. Enjoy its goodness! You can use it as a side dish or mix it with your favorite sandwich.
Things to Remember in Making Sauerkraut
- Store away from direct sunlight and drafts.
- Colder weather will make the process longer. Spring is the best time to make them since the warmth helps activate the fermentation.
- Always make sure that the cabbage is below the water level during the entire fermentation process.
- If the water level decreases during the fermentation process, you can make a brine and add it.
Let us watch this video from Kristina Seleshanko on how to make delicious Lacto-fermented sauerkraut in a mason jar!
So there you have it! Making Lacto-fermented sauerkraut in a mason jar is as easy as slicing the cabbage into strips. Remember that as long it remains unopened, your sauerkraut can last for months. Best of all, you can partner this sauerkraut in many recipes.
What do you think of this homemade recipe? Share your best sauerkraut recipe in the comments section below!
Fellow homesteaders, do you want to help others learn from your journey by becoming one of our original contributors? Write for us!
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This Article Was Found On pioneersettler.com Read the Original Article
9 SPRING VEGETABLES FOR YOUR GARDEN
Having plants in the house will bring peace to people. Having a little garden with vegetables is even better! You can grow these vegetables in your backyard garden easily as well!
RELATED: Microgreens Growing Guide
In this article:
Growing veggies in your garden will give you an opportunity to understand what you eat and value it more. Early spring is when most vegetables are being planted. Keep reading to learn about 9 spring vegetables that anyone can grow in their garden!
Tomato is the most popular garden vegetable in the States! There are different varieties to choose from. Tomatoes need to be planted in early spring because they won’t survive a frost.
Because tomatoes are consumed daily, try adding them to your garden! They’re not difficult to grow either.
Eggplants are known to have low-calorie, vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. Plus, they are delicious! So why not plant them in your garden?
Eggplants shouldn’t be planted too early because they won’t be able to survive a frost. So you could consult an expert in your area before you plant your eggplants.
Beets are known to be a superfood for its various health benefits. They’re easier to grow in the garden, usually around late March or early April.
If the weather is always cool, beets will keep getting bigger and bigger. Once the weather starts to warm up, you’ll need to harvest them, or they’ll go to waste.
Spinach is a delicious early spring veggie, and it’s also very beneficial for health. And it’s not difficult to grow spinach in your garden!
Spinach needs cold weather to grow. Getting spinach to grow is easy, but keeping it growing will require some extra care.
Peas are usually planted in late April. Peas will die in freezing temperatures, but they also won’t survive the heat either. So make sure you plant your peas in early spring.
Peas are widely used in many different ways, and there are different types of peas. The soil you’ll be planting your peas should be suitable for them, so make sure you ask while buying seeds.
There are different types of carrots, but regardless of their size and color, it’s a fact that carrots are both delicious and rich in vitamins.
They’re root vegetables, so with proper sun and watering, they can be picked up as baby carrots as well.
A radish is an excellent option for beginners because it doesn’t require too much care. Radish is easy to harvest.
Radish grows fast, so it’s better to keep an eye on it after a few weeks. Radish usually is grown pest-free, but there’s always the chance of unwanted guests, so watch out for worms. Radish can be eaten raw or can be added to garnish recipes.
Cauliflower isn’t the easiest vegetable to grow at home, but it is very popular.
Cauliflower grows better in colder weather, so before you plant it, consider the climate of your garden. Cauliflower can be eaten raw or cooked, and it is known to be very beneficial for health.
Freshly picked, tender asparagus is very delicious!
Asparagus plants get more productive with each harvest, and mature asparagus harvest can last for months! Make sure you plant them at the correct time, or else they might go to waste.
All the vegetables listed above are great for your healthy diet, and it’s fun to watch them grow. So don’t miss out on the opportunity to grow your own veggies and eat healthy this spring!
So tell us which veggies will you be growing this spring? Tell us in the comments section!
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This Article Was Found On pioneersettler.com Read the Original Article
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