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Boy: It’s not easy to become a law, is it?
—Dave Frishberg, Schoolhouse Rock, “I’m Just a Bill” (1975)
But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary.
—James Madison, The Federalist Papers, No. 51 (1788)
Defining Our Terms
Sometimes ignorantly, sometimes with deliberate malice … politicians, educators, and media wonks speak of the United States as a democracy. It isn’t. It never has been. It was never supposed to be. The truth is … it’s supposed to be a republic. It’s always been. However, to understand why, we must first look at basic definitions.
First, in a pure democracy, like those of supposed ancient Greece, citizens gather together in a single place, discuss matters of state, and then vote to establish or alter law and policy. When the vote is taken, 50 percent plus one carries the day. Because democracies require all voting citizens to meet together, democracies are traditionally small or the number of those who have the right to vote is extremely limited. At some point you should ask yourself if a democracy is still a democracy if only a few can vote.
Athens, for example, during the 3rd century had a population of close to 300,000 yet had only 30,000 (or fewer) voting citizens, all adult men. Hardly our concept of a democracy. In fact, some historians now believe it may have been closer to 5,000 adult men that actually voted. Think of it … 5,000 voting for the 300,000.
In a republic, representatives are chosen by the people, or by some portion of them. Those representatives meet together and vote to establish or alter law and policy. The percentage of yay votes required to carry the day may vary considerably depending upon the sort of law or policy under consideration. Percentages also vary widely from one republic to another. But with the idea of stability in mind, the creation or alteration of laws needs to be difficult but possible.
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Traditionally, republics move in terms of certain fixed and written laws that can’t be changed easily or that can only be changed with quite a bit of effort. Conversely, democracies can, theoretically, change their most basic operating principles with a single majority vote. For this reason, republics tend to be more stable and long-lived than democracies.
Like the Pilgrims and the Puritans, the framers of our Constitution were extremely suspicious of democracies. Many of the framers openly denounced democracies as dangerous and unworkable. In the 10th of the Federalist Papers, James Madison took some pains to show the superiority of republics to democracies generally, and the superiority of a confederated republic, such as our own, to both. He discussed these differences in terms of “faction.”
The Problem of Factions
The roots of the concept of faction are in man’s sin. Fallen man is by nature selfish and self-serving. We will routinely sacrifice the well-being of the community, now or in its future, for what we perceive to be our own present benefit. We will do this in the name of love, social justice, or sometimes calling our own gain … the common good. We will express moral horror that anyone should oppose our factious agenda. Liberals do this all the time, issuing proposals that, on the surface, seem kind, good, and loving.
Given this common “fallen” human state and our tendency to give into the temptations of power and money, the framers of our Constitution designed our federal system to mitigate and control the results of faction rather than its roots. And so, Madison tells us that if a faction is a minority, the “republican principle . . . enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote.” A small but vigorous faction may “clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution.”
The much greater problem, of course, comes when a faction represents a majority. In a democracy, the vote of 50 percent plus one can overrule both the public good and the rights of the minority. But how can a republic fare any better? This is the issue that Madison addresses at length.
Madison argues that there are only two ways to check the evils of a majority faction:
- Either the majority must be kept from being obsessed by the same foolishness at the same time,
- The majority must be left without the ability to act quickly on that foolishness.
Pure democracy can accomplish neither of these. When the votes in a democracy get together and listen to the same rousing speakers at the same time, the majority will often be moved by “a common passion or interest,” and “there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious individual.”
And so, “such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.”
A republic, on the other hand, functions through representation:
- It delegates the business of government to “a small number of citizens elected by the rest.”
- And because of this, a republic can contain greater number of citizens than a democracy and encompass a much larger territory.
Representation may give us leaders who are truly committed to the best interests of the country. But Madison was far from optimistic on this count. He saw no guarantee that wisdom, patriotism, and love of justice would be the rule for elected officials. He recognized, rather, that “men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may, by intrigue, by corruption, or by other means, first obtain the [votes], and then betray the interests, of the people.”
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The question then is this: Will small republics or larger ones be most favorable to the election of good rulers? Madison actually argues for larger republics. He gives two reasons. First, a larger republic will supply more fit candidates for office. Second, each candidate will have to please more voters, and more types of voters, to be elected.
And, as Madison argued, the greater number of citizens and extent of territory that a republic will normally encompass will increase these advantages. A republic will include “a greater variety of parties and interests,” making it less probable that “a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens.” Or, if such a common motive exists, a republican form of government will make it more difficult for all who are caught up in the same dangerous passion to act in unison.
To this point, Madison, writing in the Federalist Papers, had been comparing the workings of a democracy to those of a simple republic. Next, he goes on to discuss the even greater advantages that belong to a confederate republic — to the republican union of several smaller republics. As you might expect, he has our own republic in view.
Madison argues that the federal Union created by the Constitution amplifies all the advantages of a simple republic. It replaces the rule of the easily swayed crowd with the wisdom and skill of representatives who (we hope) can see beyond the storm of local politics and prejudices. It includes an even greater number of parties and points of view and so makes a majority faction less likely. And when these protections fail, our federal structure would make it difficult for majority factions to form in the first place, or having formed, to accomplish their purposes easily or quickly.
Within our federal Union, candidates still have to please a lot of different folks to get elected and to stay in office. Those with dangerous and radical ideas probably won’t make it into office. Madison didn’t think there would be enough radical citizens to vote them into office.
Legislative foolishness that springs up in one corner of the country may quickly win followers there, but it will take time for that same foolishness to win support in all the other states. And even when political foolishness has a lot of immediate support across the country, it still must be transformed into one or more bills that must make their way through the legislative process.
That means a majority vote in both houses of Congress and the President’s signature. Federal officials who have a long view of politics, let alone those who are committed to statesmanship, can stall and drag their feet while temporary enthusiasm dies out and support dwindles. Attempts to alter the Constitution itself face even great challenges that take many more months, if not years, to overcome. (Remember the ERA?) Such are the advantages of American federalism.
Of course, no form of civil government can force evil people to act righteously. No forms, no structure or procedures can keep a people who have their hearts set on folly from turning that folly into legislation. The truth is, some forms of political order slow down evil better than others. Our Founders felt democracy, by its very nature, contributed to the folly problem rather than mitigating against it.
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NYC Adds Nearly 4,000 People Who Never Tested Positive To Coronavirus Death Tolls
New York City added nearly 4,000 people who never tested positive for the coronavirus to its death toll Tuesday, bringing coronavirus-related deaths in the city to around 10,000 people.
The city decided to add 3,700 people to its death tolls, who they “presumed” to have died from the virus, according to a report from The New York Times. The additions increased the death toll in the U.S. by 17%, according to the Times report, and included people who were suffering from symptoms of the virus, such as intense coughing and a fever.
The report stated that Democratic New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio decided over the weekend to change the way the city is counting deaths.
“In the heat of battle, our primary focus has been on saving lives,” de Blasio press secretary Freddi Goldstein told the Times.“As soon as the issue was raised, the mayor immediately moved to release the data.”
The Ultimate Energizer Review – Does It Really Work?
If you’re looking for a review of the ultimate energizer guide then you have come to the right spot because in this exclusive article we’re going to blow the lid off the ultimate energizer once and for all and reveal weather it is the real deal or not.
This brings us to the review of the ultimate energizer guide. This is a program that provides users with classified information on how to build a free energy generator. But can the program really make you achieve this?
does it work? will it be worth your investment, time and energy? all these questions and more are what this review on the ultimate energizer program seeks to help you find answers to.
The ultimate energizer review – is it worth it?
About The Ultimate Energizer guide
The ultimate energizer is your ultimate guide to building your own alternative and portable energy source to power up any of your household appliances including refrigerators and aircon units. It is a very affordable way to having an emergency generator that can help you save more than 50% from your electricity bills without spending too much on other alternative energy source like solar panels or wind turbines which is costly and will also need a lot of space.
The ultimate energizer causes you to be calm about the electricity bill. This well ordered guide shows you how to manufacture this claim “home energy gadget” today impeccably. This will dispose of your energy charge ensured.
It is lost to the earth which means we need to really take care of it in order to reduce the cost of energy bills which introduces the ultimate energizer guide.
About The Ultimate Energizer Creator
The creator of the complete the ultimate energizer guide is steven perkins. He found the journal of the founder of this technology in his home when his father shifted near quebec city in canada.
In this post, we will review the ultimate energizer whose creator claimed to offer a way through which you can generate non-stop current. According to the author, you can drop down your electricity bills by 80%.
Of course the ultimate energizer owners provide resources. But the truth is that you are a master creator. All of them have that talent in us. The only difference is the extent to which it is hidden in each of us.
Features of The Ultimate Energizer
The features of the ultimate energizer guide are as follows:-. This program guide will help you to design a the ultimate energizer generator which will follow the rules of linear induction motor which is built around a track that is orbicular to maintain the smooth motion of rotors that are transportable.
You can find here, a extensive review which highlights all the important features and performance criteria of the ultimate energizer. Use of the the ultimate energizer is very easy since all of the functions can be accessed in a short time; you have complete control over it. 100% money back guarantee shows that the ultimate energizer really works. The ultimate energizer gives full customer support for 7/24/365, also, features, credibility and the ultimate energizer’s ease of use are favorably satisfied by the buyers.
Use it on any electrical appliances from small clocks to big plasma tv screens, refrigerators, and air conditioners. Power the cabins while hiking to the mountains or camping. Other essential features of this complete the ultimate energizer are that it is easy to assemble and does not require a technical background to master engineering.
Pros and Cons of The Ultimate Energizer
I’ve created this honest ultimate energizer review to help you make a well-informed decision. I’ve tested it myself and now i’m going to share with you all the key aspects you may be interested in: how does it work? is it really so powerful and effective? what are its pros and cons?.
It is non-polluting. It remains popular the ultimate energizer guide pros & cons because it is both a renewable and clean source of energy. Harnessing solar energy is more than a fine idea it’s currently a reality in thousands of homes in a lot of nations around the world.
On the review of the ultimate energizer guide, we will be looking into what exactly the program is all about, the details of the energy generator program, the benefits, pros & cons and our conclusion on the program.
Does The Ultimate Energizer really work?
The device is usable during emergencies. It works without fuels and therefore there are no expected fumes. It is weather proof. Cons of the ultimate energizer. You can only download the program from the official website.
But the ultimate energizer reviews that are available from real users online on platforms like google and youtube seem to confirm that the device does indeed work. So, as per my ultimate energizer review answer to the question is the ultimate energizer legit? is definitely yes.
The ultimate energizer guide. The ultimate energizer is said to work for your home and cut electricity by 82%, guaranteed by tomorrow. The ultimate energizer reviews. It can boost any type of electricity by as much as 5 times.
Advantages of The Ultimate Energizer Program
The program can benefit you in many ways. Below we are listing the advantages of using the ultimate energizer program for generating electricity:. This device will help you save up to 60%-70%, without investing money in solar panels which can cost you a lot of money.
There are additional the ultimate energizer guide program advantages too, including advantages at tax time, so do your homework on what you might have for being a solar power pioneer contributed back.
Why The Ultimate Energizer is Useful?
The ultimate energizer is a complete guide and blueprint. With it, you get everything you need to know to build your own free energy generator. This generator can be completed for less than $50 if you have some tools already. But i remember reading another review of the ultimate energizer, and the guy said he took days. Maybe he was crafty. Then, you assemble it and get it to work.
You will be guided step by step, that anybody who can read can build it. You do not need prior building experience or massive strength; it is that easy. Building the ultimate energizer takes under 4 hours if you are slow and definitely a lot less when you have help.
The ultimate energizer has already changed the lives of over 30,000 families who chose to power their homes using this eco-friendly device. This is definitely a good investment that is worth your time and money and if you think it isn’t after trying it out, you can request for a refund.
Is The Ultimate Energizer a Scam?
The ultimate energizer guide really show you how to power your house and save tremendously, or is this just another overhyped scam? this system was created after its owner decided he wanted to have a home power generating system in case of any crises or disasters.
The ultimate energizer pdf. It does not need any conventional electric power. The ultimate energizer scam. In this program, you can also build more generator and sell for profit. This product can also be incorporated into the automobile to power an electric motor.
All you need is an open mind and a desire to try new things to get a life in the field of freedom of energy. So, what are you waiting for? it’s time to say goodbye to major energy companies and start using the ultimate energizer guide today.
Watch this video demonstration of the ultimate energizer guide put into action
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